Hamilton’s work looks at a decidedly under-studied period of Mormon history: the two years at Nauvoo following Smith’s death. Times and Seasons was the Nauvoo paper published by the Mormons during their stay in Illinois. This brief article studies the structure and potentially controversial powers of the Nauvoo Legion, the local militia of Nauvoo. A search for Nauvoo will reveal several contemporary documents, primarily from non-Mormon papers, that shed more light on the happenings at Nauvoo and after the departure of the Mormons. The Mormons and Politics in Illinois Society: 1839-1844 – George R. Gayler. 3 1844 newspapers with THE MORMON WAR in Nauvoo ILLINOIS and the MURDER of JOSEPH SMITH - inv # 6I-204Please visit our EBAY STORE for THOUSANDS of HISTORICAL NEWSPAPERS on sale or at auction.SEE PHOTO 1839 – June 2. Its primary focus rests on the controversies arising from and surrounding the Mormon settlement in Illinois; it is by no means a thorough explanation of Mormon theology or society, but  it is rather an exploration of Nauvoo’s many roles and interactions on the Illinois frontier. Flanders provides a holistic view of Nauvoo from a variety of perspectives that provide a thorough exploration of Nauvoo society and its relationship with the non-Mormons of Illinois. American Legal and Political Institutions, Christian Churches in Joseph Smith’s Day, Daily Life of First-Generation Latter-day Saints, Joseph Smith’s 1844 Campaign for United States President, Lectures on Theology (“Lectures on Faith”), Martin Harris’s Consultations with Scholars, Printing and Publishing the Book of Mormon, Religious Beliefs in Joseph Smith’s Day, Restoration of the Melchizedek Priesthood, Temple Dedications and Dedicatory Prayers, “Quincy, Illinois, Settlement,” Church History Topics. It is primarily composed of critical articles and books, though primary sources are represented as well through collections and digital databases. MORMON WARMORMON WAR. The Quincy Democratic Association publicly denounced Missourians for their injustice toward the Saints and pledged to assist Mormon refugees. For a history see: Young, Robert W. "The Nauvoo Legion" Parts 1–12. The Historians and Mormon Nauvoo – Richard L. Bushman. The Kingdom of God in Illinois: Politics in Utopia – Robert Bruce Flanders. At Nauvoo, the conflict between Mormons and non-Mormons escalated into what is sometimes called the "Mormon War in Illinois." Smith recognizes that the amount of information regarding secret polygamy in Nauvoo is scarce, but she is able to analyze what material she does have coherently and professionally. Hierzulande weiß man nicht gerade viel über diese Glaubensgemeinschaft, die der US-Amerikaner Joseph Smith einst gegründet und aufgebaut hat. History Research Guides by Boston University Students. That action gave rise to the third confrontation known as the Illinois Mormon War and despite the dressing down, they continued to run a covert arm of religious police and government. Smith's followers, commonly known as Mormons, began to settle in Jackson County in 1831 to "build up" the city of Zion. Hearing the same feelings expressed in Illinois that had caused terrible persecutions in Missouri, the Mormons only became firmer in their convictions, and soon a tit for tat war had begun. The Contributor: Representing the Young Men’s and Young Ladies’ Mutual Improve… Opponents of the Mormons in Warsaw and Carthage began to agitate for the expulsion from Illinois of the Latter Day Saints. As the Saints moved into Hancock County, Illinois beginning in the spring of 1839, Hancock County leaned toward the Whig Party. This is a very thorough and well-written article about secular clashes of Mormons and non-Mormons. Ample consideration is given to Nauvoo as both a city of the earth, with a government, military, and industry, and as Smith’s projected Zion for his people. Illinois officials came to this predominantly Mormon city Wednesday to apologize for the expulsion of the faith's earliest members and the killing of its founder. 1838 Mormon War — Mormon War Date August 6 – November 1, 1838 Location Northwest Missouri, United States Result Mormons stripped of property and expelled from Missouri … Wikipedia. This source is an attempt in secular scholarship to detail the circumstances and reasons behind the death of Joseph Smith through the lens of his accused murderers. ‘We Weep When We Remember Zion’: Early Latter-day Saints as Refugees, Viewpoint: Remember the Example of Quincy, Illinois. Brigham Young had to step down as head of the place, but … It serves as a contemporary example of strife within the Mormon community about the viability of Smith’s doctrine and ideal society. The U.S. declares war on Mexico in May, and a Mormon Battalion of some 500 soldiers enlists, although they see no action. It supplements narrower collections of primary sources, provides contextual evidence, and creates an entry point for further exploration into Mormon documentary history. Foster’s article explores the little-known birth of polygamy in Nauvoo through a document printed in 1842, published by Joseph Smith, that set forth a possible early advocacy for plural marriage. The city of Quincy, Illinois, is best known in Mormon history as a point of relocation for Latter-day Saint refugees after their expulsion from Missouri in 1839. In 1839, a beleaguered, exiled group known as the Church of Latter Day Saints of Jesus Christ—also known as the Mormons—crossed the Missouri border into Jackson County, Illinois. Hamilton provides useful information about the aftermath of the prophet’s death and the escalation of old conflicts between Mormons and anti-Mormons. At Nauvoo, the conflict between Mormons and non-Mormons escalated into what is sometimes called the "Mormon War in Illinois." Foster also studies the social problems associated with the implementation of plural marriage and the reasons for its internal and external controversies. The people of Quincy first encountered Mormons when groups of Latter-day Saints passed through the village on their way to Missouri between 1834 and 1838. When Mormons were driven from Missouri in the winter of … The Mormons’ entry into politics, he argues, arose from the need to protect themselves from persecution. The site is still a good source of information and a good starting point for more thorough research. Harper’s article examines the role of Joseph Smith’s religious revelations in the creation of Nauvoo and the community’s involvement in the political sphere. 1844 - Mormon leader Joseph Smith is killed. The Utah War (1857–1858), also known as the Utah Expedition, Utah Campaign, Buchanan's Blunder, the Mormon War, or the Mormon Rebellion was an armed confrontation between Mormon settlers in the Utah Territory and the armed forces of the United States government.The confrontation lasted from May 1857 to July 1858. God the Father; Jesus; The Holy Spirit; The Trinity; Gospel Topics Essays; History of Mormonism. Mason explores the formation of the Mormon theodemocratic model, its roots in Mormon religious views, and its legacy in later periods of Mormon history. Their sojourn in Illinois was not one of those times. The trail’s end, in far off Utah Territory, was a difficult, perilous road those who had just left Illinois had little choice but to traverse. By reminding the viewer of the relative novelty of democracy on the freshly forming frontier, Hallwas contextualizes the struggle between Mormon theologically-oriented democratic ideals and more traditional non-religious democracy. Additional book reviews will provide a more thorough understanding of the most controversial aspects in Brodie’s work. The people of Quincy first encountered Mormons when groups of Latter-day Saints passed through the village on their way to Missouri between 1834 and 1838. The Mormons leave Illinois … During the next year, the majority of the Saints who had stopped in Quincy moved 45 miles upriver to Commerce, Illinois, where they founded the city of Nauvoo. By taking violent action the citizens of Hancock County reasserted fundamental direction over local government whether for good or ill. The Suppression of the “Nauvoo Expositor” – Dallin H. Oaks. Nauvoo: Kingdom on the Mississippi – Robert Bruce Flanders. His article not only studies the legality of Smith’s order to destroy the press, but also points out the destruction of the Nauvoo Expositor as the ignition for a series of mounting tensions both within and outside the Mormon community at Nauvoo that eventually led to Smith’s violent death. This is a wide cross section of documents about Mormon history, but it includes several accounts about Nauvoo society as well as the aftermath of Joseph Smith’s murder. This political dimension of the Mormon religion was born, Hill claims, from the government’s failure to protect the Mormon people from harsh persecution in Missouri; the Mormon political-religious model became a measure of safety and protection from a harsh outer world. It is a useful tool for considering the lenses through which students of Mormon history have seen Nauvoo. In an interview, MacKinnon was careful to note that, although the Brigham Young and the Mormons in the territory distanced themselves from the Civil War, there were Latter-day Saints living elsewhere — say Illinois or Missouri — who participated on both the Union and the Confederate sides. It’s the last thing you’d ever imagine to be part of the history of those nice men who go door-to-door in white shirts. Everett joined the Army in 1843 and fought at the Battle of Nauvoo in the Illinois Mormon War. [6] Although Stephen A. Douglas was in his twenties during the late 1830s and … He frames the hostilities of non-Mormons and Mormons in terms of republican ideology and the question of early American civic virtue. It existed from 1839 to 1845. Hallwas and Launius attempt to present a cultural context without a religious bias and approach the catalyst of the controversies as a conflict primarily of ideologies. Hallwas reinforces the importance of theology in Mormon politics and pursues an understanding of Nauvoo from the eyes of the surrounding non-Mormons. Nauvoo is historic in more ways than one, and you may be surprised that its roots are embedded in the Mormon … Search completed in 0.022 seconds. He explores its true meaning and charts its early path within the Mormon community before discussing its possible ramifications for Joseph Smith and for Nauvoo itself. The officers were commissioned by the governor, and the members were required to do the same amount of military duty as the regular state militia. Oaks’ article delves into the issue of the destruction of the Nauvoo Expositor, a short-lived newspaper whose only issue attempted to expose and defame the falsehoods of Smith’s Mormonism. “From Assassination to Expulsion: Two Years of Distrust, Hostility, and Violence.”. Few people know that there’s an old Mormon town right here in Ilinois. Any of the digitized primary sources found in the library catalog above will link to this site. It is particularly useful because far less study has been devoted to the Mormons at Nauvoo after Smith’s death than before Smith’s death. The author admits that the early implementation of polygamy is not well documented, but he makes a fair historical assessment of the information he does have. Having recently read The 1838 Mormon War in Missouri (LeSueur) and the newly-published Fire & Sword (Gentry/Compton), I was curious what new research or perspectives this book might add. Over the next year, around eight thousand church members, often ragged and deprived of their property, left Missouri for Illinois. It has a comprehensive selection of documents across a wide span of time and a useful tagging system which allows for quick, easy access to the documents associated with a particular topic or individual. In October 1844, a great gathering was announced in Warsaw. Illinois Mormon War: Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia [home, info] Words similar to illinois mormon war Usage examples for illinois mormon war Words that often appear near illinois mormon war Rhymes of illinois mormon war Invented words related to illinois mormon war: Search for illinois mormon war on Google or Wikipedia. Eventually they had to come to terms that without the legal backing, their rebellion was fairly futile. Correction Appended. Cultures In Conflict: A Documentary History of the Mormon War in Illinois | John E. Hallwas, Roger Launius | ISBN: 9780874211863 | Kostenloser Versand für … Cultures in Conflict: A Documentary History of the Mormon War in Illinois – John E. Hallwas & Roger D. Launius. Bushman’s article studies the approaches that historians, Mormons, and non-Mormons alike have taken towards understanding and interpreting the events at Nauvoo. It is a narrow topic that would best be used in conjunction with wider currents of conflict. God and the People: Theodemocracy in Nineteenth Century Mormonism – Patrick Q. Mason. The Mormon-Missouri War (also called the Mormon War or the Missouri War) was an armed conflict between the Latter-day Saints and other citizens of northern Missouri in the fall of 1838. Tensions built up between the rapidly-growing Mormon co… The rapid rise and decline of Nauvoo, once intended as a paradise in preparation for the millennium, is surrounded in bias and conflict, and it is often seen as an enduring example of religious persecution in America. It was formed from Schuyler County on Feb 1, 1839, it was named after Jacob Brown [1775-1828] who defeated the British at the Battle of Sackett's Harbor in 1813. On this episode, we examine the immediate impact and fallout of the destruction of the Nauvoo Expositor. Nauvoo during the Mormon period (1839 - 1846). Joseph Smith Staged A Jailbreak. The authors have compiled an excellent set nearly 100 original documents from the Mormon War in Illinois (1840s). 10 Joseph Smith Was Tarred, Feathered, And Nearly Castrated. The "Mormon War in Illinois" and the Mormon Exodus After Smith's death, the agitation against Mormons continued. April 30: The Nauvoo Temple is completed and dedicated. He follows the chronology of Mormon political views, pinpointing Navuoo as the site of a major transformation of Mormon earthly aspirations. He regards the conflict at Nauvoo as a conflict of differing ideologies about democracy on the frontier. Illinois (englische Aussprache [ˌɪlɪˈnɔɪ̯]) ist ein Bundesstaat der Vereinigten Staaten.Er liegt im Mittleren Westen und grenzt im Nordosten an den Michigansee.Der Name kommt aus der Algonkin-Sprache und dem Französischen und bezeichnet den Indianerstamm der Illiniwek oder Illini, der damals das Land bewohnte und dessen Name Das Volk bedeutet. Hampshire, Annette P. “Thomas Sharp and Anti-Mormon Sentiment in Illinois, 1842-1845.”, Mason, Patrick Q. Eventually they had to come to terms that without the legal backing, their rebellion was fairly futile. Hill also emphasizes the development of the Mormon political kingdom out of rural, millennial, religious views. In October 1844, a great gathering was announced in Warsaw. Smith and the major leaders of the church were sent to Liberty … When Mormons were driven from Missouri in the winter of 1838–1839, thousands of displaced Saints left the state, walking eastward across the frozen Mississippi River and settling temporarily in Quincy. Nelson’s article considers the roles of law, order, democracy, and the government in the violent reaction to Mormon growth in Illinois. Latter Day Saints in outlying areas were driven from their homes and gathered to Nauvoo for protection. He said, " Men engaged in unpopular projects expect more protection from the laws than the laws are able to furnish in the face of popular excitement . " The book provides not only historical context for the migration to Nauvoo from Missouri, but also a thorough study of Smith’s role at Nauvoo as prophet and, increasingly, political figure. The Mormon War (1844–1846) was a series of disorders between the Mormon residents of Nauvoo in Hancock County, Illinois, and the non-Mormon population of the neighboring territory. The Mormon community was initially welcomed and expanded rapidly into a permanent, thriving center of Mormon religion, but over the course of five years, the Mormons rapidly lost favor with authorities and neighboring towns. Two years later, then-Illinois Gov. The Third Mormon War, often called the Utah War (March 1857 to July 1858), saw U.S. troops take the part of Wyoming away and after the Mormon surrender, Deseret became the Territory of Utah. Hampshire’s brief article is a collection of personal letters by Thomas Sharp and other anti-Mormons in Illinois. 1839 - The capital city is moved to Springfield. This article provides a better understanding of the Legion itself and of its influence inside and outside the Nauvoo community. The Mormon founder and first prophet, Joseph Smith, Exiles in a Land of Liberty: Mormons in America, 1830-1846 – Kenneth H. Winn. A Wall to Defend Zion: The Nauvoo Charter – James L. Kimball Jr. Kimball’s article examines the formation of the Nauvoo charter, the document outlining Nauvoo’s legal powers as a legitimate city, and the possible consequences of its contents. The library is, however, a comprehensive collection based in Utah: many of the archival materials may not be viewable online and many are print materials. He defines the entire struggle not as an episode of persecution but as a conflict of ideas regarding the rights of the majority and minority under democratic rule. The Missouri State Archives’ “Mormon War Papers” shed light on this frequently misunderstood episode of Missouri history. Chapters 8-10 deal most explicitly with the ideologies and events associated with Nauvoo, but the preceding chapters provide very useful background to the transformation of Mormon political and theological thought. Die Mormonen. In spite of the problematic aspects, however, the book does provide detailed information regarding the murder and contemporary Illinois society. A Conference was held at the house of Brother Benjamin Wilcox in McDonough county, Ill. on the 2nd day of June, 1839 for the purpose of organizing a church. The organization was disbanded in 1846 and was reorganized in Utah in 1852. By collecting these primary sources and interpreting them, the authors provide an invaluable source of contemporary information that fleshes out and contextualizes the Mormon narrative at Nauvoo. Kimball argues that the powers delineated in the charter isolated the Mormons from their neighbors by giving them possibly excessive powerful hegemony over their settlement as an entity separate from the state. Nevertheless, the main events in that famous frontier episode are easily summarized. Flanders’ work explores Nauvoo as a settlement in its entirety. Eliza R. Snow praised the generosity and charity of the townspeople in her poem “To the Citizens of Quincy,” thanking the “Sons and Daughters of Benevolence” for meeting the “urgent wants of the oppress’d and poor.”1. It is one of the first books written about Smith from a secular perspective. Eliza R. Snow, “To the Citizens of Quincy,” Quincy Whig, May 11, 1839; in Jill Mulvay Derr and Karen Lynn Davidson, eds., Eliza R. Snow: The Complete Poetry (Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University Press; Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 2009), 86–88. These issues provide a wealth of internal information about the Nauvoo settlement regarding its religious practices, its social growth, and its role on the Illinois frontier. Brodie explores the course of Smith’s life, the creation of his religion, and his role in its expansion to the Midwest. The collection itself can also be viewed here. This research guide is intended to explore Mormon Nauvoo in its historical context. Illinois volunteers in the Mormon War : the disturbances in Hancock County, 1844-1846 (Genie-Logic Enterprises (Palmer, Illinois)) Family History Library Nauvoo legion in Illinois : a history of the Mormon militia, 1841-1846 Family History Library For a more thorough analysis of the consequences of Nauvoo’s new theological tenets, this source is best considered in context with more detailed articles and books. It was one of the first settlements and by far the largest in the 1830s when Joseph Smith brought his congregation to Illinois. She closely studies the theological principles underlying plural marriage in Mormonism and considers the controversial transformations it underwent in Nauvoo to turn it into a widely accepted and often vehemently defended practice in the late nineteenth century. In this article, Gayler thoroughly studies Mormon political movements and associations in Nauvoo. Download . Anti-Mormon Mob Violence and the Rhetoric of Law and Order in Early Mormon History – Marie H. Nelson. Quest for Refuge: An Hypothesis as to the Social Origins and Nature of the Mormon Political Kingdom – Marvin S. Hill. Governor Thomas Ford and the Murderers of Joseph Smith – Keith Huntress. While it may have a greater focus on Smith than on Nauvoo itself, it nevertheless provides valuable information about Nauvoo’s relationship with surrounding towns and the theological and social divisions occurring within the Mormon community itself. “A Little-known Defense of Polygamy from the Mormon Press in 1842.”, Huntress, Keith. The author’s inherent hostility and comprehensive condemnation of Mormon doctrine is blatantly biased, but it serves well as an example of the contemporary controversy raised over Mormon theology and its place in a world of Christian hegemony. Whole villages were razed. The non-Mormon population had welcomed the Mormons upon their 1839 arrival but soon resented their city charter, feared their political power, and envied their apparent prosperity. No Man Knows My History: The Life of Joseph Smith, the Mormon Prophet – Fawn Brodie. “Dictated by Christ”: Joseph Smith and the Politics of Revelation – Steven C. Harper. This site contains only primary sources, and it is very easy to locate significant documents. The Mormon War (1844–1846) was a series of disorders between the Mormon residents of Nauvoo in Hancock County, Illinois, and the non-Mormon population of the neighboring territory. The winter of … Photo credit: lds.org. Comments. Flanders analyzes the arrival, the lives, and the transformations of the Mormons, as well as the consequences of the city’s growth and the subsequent conflicts that arose. Their insightful Introduction, commentary to each document and footnotes make this an excellent and valuable "Documentary History" of this period. James; Presbyterian History Resources; Strength for the Journey; zMusings ; Search for: Mormons in McDonough County, Illinois in the 1830s. The Illinois state legislature voted to revoke Nauvoo's charter and the city began to operate illegally. Mulder and Mortenson take a similar approach by gathering primary sources for the viewer’s own interpretation, but encompass a much broader spectrum. Its county seat is Mount Sterling, Illinois. The first and only issue of the Nauvoo Expositor. This compilation is small and has a narrow focus, but it provides several primary sources that document the sentiments and considerations of anti-Mormons before and after the death of the prophet. Hill provides important background information about the character and transformations of Mormon theology at Nauvoo. This group was determined to repeal the Nauvoo Charter and drive the Mormons from Illinois. Dezember 1805 in Sharon, Windsor County, Vermont, USA; † 27. Sarah Jane Weaver, “Viewpoint: Remember the Example of Quincy, Illinois,” Church News, May 22, 2017, lds.org/church/news. The Economic Loss Doctrine, or the Moorman Doctrine as it is known in Illinois, is a doctrine that bars recovery for economic losses under a negligence theory. Carthage Conspiracy Reconsidered: A Second Look at the Murder of Joseph and Hyrum Smith – Marvin S. Hill. The so-called Mormon conflict that occurred in Hancock County, Illinois, during the 1840s has been frequently discussed by historians but is not well understood. From Nauvoo the Mormon Trail began, and one more group would face the long journey west. This article affirms the continuation of Mormon strife in Illinois even after the death of the controversial prophet. By the end of 1845, it became clear that no peace was possible, and Young and the Twelve negotiated a truce so that the Latter Day Saints could prepare to abandon the city. These sources address the rumors and truths surrounding Mormons from their origins to their settlement in Utah. The following sources will provide a close study of Nauvoo in context as one of the most important, controversial religious settlements in American history, as well as provide a stepping stone for further inquiry into religious migrations, persecutions, and histories. This online archive is the host site for the Church’s primary sources. 1809 - The Illinois Territory is separated from the Northwest Territory. In 1845 mob violence against the Mormon community increased, and the Illinois legislature revoked the city's charter. Illinois campaign — Part of the American Revolutionary War The Fall … In Jeffrey M. Shaw and Timothy J. Demy (Editors), War and Religion: An Encyclopedia of Faith and … 1838 Mormon War — Mormon War Date August 6 – November 1, 1838 Location Northwest Missouri, United States Result Mormons stripped of property and expelled from Missouri … Wikipedia. Its most important role, arguably, was that Smith’s order for its destruction led to his arrest, which in turn led to his death. This work is very thorough and contains a wealth of vital information. Quincy, Illinois, Settlement. Foister and Wicks take a different approach to Smith’s death by studying it as a carefully planned conspiracy to assassinate the prophet rather than as the sad result of spontaneous mob violence. By referring or linking you to this resource, we do not endorse or guarantee the content or the views of the author. The assassination of Joseph Smith Jr. in 1844 and a Mormon war that only ended with the members’ removal from Illinois 1846 are only the two most visible aspects of this struggle. Historic Nauvoo marker near the Nauvoo Temple.Photo Chris Light CC BY-SA 4.0 Tensions between followers of the Latter Day Saint movement (Mormons) and Protestant Americans had simmered for two decades, including intense conflicts in the 1838 Mormon War (otherwise known as the Missouri Mormon War, involving David Rice Atchison as a militia general and resulting in the death of the movement's founder, Joseph Smith Jr.) and the 1844-1846 Illinois Mormon War (resulting in the … Joseph Smith Jr [ˈdʒoʊzɪf ˈsmɪθ] (* 23. In October 1844, a great gathering was announced in Warsaw. Here, Flanders considers the religious motivations behind Nauvoo’s political aspirations and how those dreams of an earthly Zion gave rise to conflict with other Illinois towns who disagreed with and felt threatened by the possibility of Mormon political hegemony. illinois mormon war in a sentence - Use "illinois mormon war" in a sentence 1. The Nauvoo Expositor is the first and only issue of a dissenting newspaper in Carthage, Illinois. View this article's JSTOR metadata. Fleeing from years of violent persecution by non-Mormons, the Mormons set up the city of Nauvoo under the aegis of their prophet, Joseph Smith, the founder and first prophet of the Church. Opponents of the Mormons in Warsaw and Carthage began to agitate for the expulsion from Illinois of the Latter Day Saints. Hill’s article studies the death of Joseph and Hyrum Smith in the context of the numerous rising conflicts between Mormon Nauvoo and non-Mormon Illinois settlements who felt threatened by the Mormons’ growth. “Governor Thomas Ford and the Murderers of Joseph Smith.”, Hill, Marvin S. “Carthage Conspiracy Reconsidered: A Second Look at the Murder of Joseph and Hyrum Smith.”, Hamilton, Marshall. Episode 203 – Illinois-Mormon War of Extermination. The city of Quincy, Illinois, is best known in Mormon history as a point of relocation for Latter-day Saint refugees after their expulsion from Missouri in 1839. Opponents of the Mormons in Warsaw and Carthage began to agitate for the expulsion from Illinois of the Latter Day Saints. The Nauvoo Legion, 1840-1845: A Unique Military Organization – John C. Bennett, Hamilton Gardner, James Shepherd, and James Sloan. Mason’s article studies of the role of religion in Mormon politics. 1818 - Illinois becomes the 21st state. MORMON WARMORMON WAR. A Little-known Defense of Polygamy from the Mormon Press in 1842 – Lawrence Foster. Nearly 2,000 left Nauvoo by early 1847. With the arrival of the Mormon refugees, the population of Quincy swelled from 800 in 1835 to 2,300 in 1840. Among the Mormons: Historic Accounts by Contemporary Observers – William Mulder & A. Russell Mortenson. Nauvoo Roots of Mormon Polygamy, 1841–46: A Preliminary Demographic Report – George D. Smith. Merina Smith’s book offers an in-depth look into the early construction and implementation of the Mormon principle of “celestial marriage,” also known as plural marriage or polygamy. Winn’s work encompasses a variety of historical perspectives and is a very thorough study of the persecution specific to the Mormons. This is a good contextualizing source about the murder that clearly connects the death with broader societal factors. Mormons in McDonough County, Illinois in the 1830s; Perspectives of Yale Band at Illinois College; Prelude to the Civil War; McFadin Trial; Presbys of Bond Co., IL; Rev Levi Spencer; Schuyler Presbytery.

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