[359], Although there is no official national anthem of Scotland,[360] Flower of Scotland is played on special occasions and sporting events such as football and rugby matches involving the Scotland national teams and since 2010 is also played at the Commonwealth Games after it was voted the overwhelming favourite by participating Scottish athletes. The heavy dependence on obsolescent heavy industry and mining was a central problem, and no one offered workable solutions. [391], Scottish clubs have achieved some success in European competitions, with Celtic winning the European Cup in 1967, Rangers and Aberdeen winning the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup in 1972 and 1983 respectively, and Aberdeen also winning the UEFA Super Cup in 1983. His first prose work, Waverley in 1814, is often called the first historical novel. British Rail created the ScotRail brand. [209] The Scottish Government is headed by the first minister, who is accountable to the Scottish Parliament and is the minister of charge of the Scottish Government. ), The large number of military bases in Scotland led some to use the euphemism "Fortress Scotland". Chapter 2: Natural Resources", Integrated Upland Management for Wildlife, Field Sports, Agriculture & Public Enjoyment, "Scotland remains home to Britain's tallest tree as Dughall Mor reaches new heights", "Britain's record-breaking trees identified", "Why Scotland has so many mosses and liverworts", "Bryology (mosses, liverworts and hornworts)", "Scotland's Population at its Highest Ever", Census 2011: Detailed characteristics on Ethnicity, Identity, Language and Religion in Scotland – Release 3A, "A Century on the Census—Gaelic in Twentieth Century Focus". [119] Shetland's relative proximity to occupied Norway resulted in the Shetland bus by which fishing boats helped Norwegians flee the Nazis, and expeditions across the North Sea to assist resistance.[120]. [403], Scotland's primary sources for energy are provided though renewable energy (42%), nuclear (35%) and fossil fuel generation (22%). [291] The United States, Netherlands, Germany, France, and Norway constitute the country's major export markets. [6] Since the enlargement of the European Union more people from Central and Eastern Europe have moved to Scotland, and the 2011 census indicated that 61,000 Poles live there. The first phase of the clearances followed patterns of agricultural change throughout Britain. The country capital has been based in the city of Edinburgh since the early 15th century. [329] Later medieval literature included works in Latin,[330] Gaelic,[331] Old English[332] and French. [28] Its membership is 398,389,[195] about 7.5% of the total population, though according to the 2014 Scottish Annual Household Survey, 27.8%, or 1.5 million adherents, identified the Church of Scotland as the church of their religion. It is one of Scotland's 32 council areas. In 1295, both Scotland and France signed what became known as the Auld Alliance in Paris, which acted as a military and diplomatic alliance between English invasion and expansion. Synonyms for Capital of Scotland in Free Thesaurus. [299], Although the Bank of England is the central bank for the UK, three Scottish clearing banks issue Sterling banknotes: the Bank of Scotland, the Royal Bank of Scotland and the Clydesdale Bank. On the west coast, remnants of ancient Celtic Rainforest still remain, particularly on the Taynish peninsula in Argyll, these forests are particularly rare due to high rates of deforestation throughout Scottish history. [398] The world's oldest golf tournament, and golf's first major, is The Open Championship, which was first played on 17 October 1860 at Prestwick Golf Club, in Ayrshire, Scotland, with Scottish golfers winning the earliest majors. Scotland has five international airports operating scheduled services to Europe, North America and Asia, as well domestic services to England, Northern Ireland and Wales. [210] The Scottish Government's cabinet comprises nine cabinet secretaries. [56]:76, 83, The Treaty of Perpetual Peace was signed in 1502 by James IV of Scotland and Henry VII of England. Scotland is divided into 32 administrative subdivisions or local authorities, known as council areas. [68][69], After another proposal from the English House of Lords was rejected in 1695, and a further Lords motion was voted down in the House of Commons in 1700, the Parliament of Scotland again rejected union in 1702. Scotland (Scots: Scotland, Scottish Gaelic: Alba [ˈal̪ˠapə] (listen)) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. However, temperatures are generally lower than in the rest of the UK, with the temperature of −27.2 °C (−17.0 °F) recorded at Braemar in the Grampian Mountains, on 11 February 1895, the coldest ever recorded anywhere in the UK. The Highlands and Islands lie to the north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault, which runs from Arran to Stonehaven. [183] Ulster's Protestant population is mainly of lowland Scottish descent,[184] and it is estimated that there are more than 27 million descendants of the Scots-Irish migration now living in the US. Now Playing. [150] The golden eagle is something of a national icon. Pintsch delivered the letter to Hitler at the Berghof around noon on 11 May. The Atlantic Ocean borders the west coast and the North Sea is to the east. DFDS Seaways operated a freight-only Rosyth – Zeebrugge ferry service, until a fire damaged the vessel DFDS were using. On Air Now. In 2011, 43,700 people moved from Wales, Northern Ireland or England to live in Scotland.[189]. [317][318] The four universities founded before the end of the 16th century – the University of St Andrews, the University of Glasgow, the University of Aberdeen and the University of Edinburgh – are collectively known as the ancient universities of Scotland, all of which rank among the 200 best universities in the world in the THE rankings, with Edinburgh placing in the top 50. RAF Lossiemouth, located in Moray, is the most northerly air defence fighter base in the United Kingdom and is home to three fast-jet squadrons equipped with the Eurofighter Typhoon. The majority of births are to unmarried women (51.3% of births were outside of marriage in 2012[191]). In 2006, as a result of the Delivering Security in a Changing World white paper, the Scottish infantry regiments in the Scottish Division were amalgamated to form the Royal Regiment of Scotland. "Brexit: Nicola Sturgeon says second Scottish independence vote 'highly likely, "Scottish Leader Nicola Sturgeon Announces Plans for Second Independence Referendum", "Scottish independence: Sturgeon requests powers for referendum", "Scotland's right to choose: putting Scotland's future in Scotland's hands - gov.scot", "Scottish independence: Johnson rejects Sturgeon's indyref2 demand", "Indyref2: Scottish Secretary rejects new vote 'for a generation, "Gordon Brown: Scotland needs 'time to heal' before any referendum", "Scottish independence: What is a section 30 order? Scotland’s First Capital. [341] In the 20th century the Scottish Renaissance saw a surge of literary activity and attempts to reclaim the Scots language as a medium for serious literature. 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