Exhibitions in Ramkhamhaeng National Museum.
Currently Ramkhamhaeng National Museum exhibition includes three building as;
1. Ramkhamhaeng National Museum Building
2. Lai Sue Thai memorial Building
3. Building of stucco sculptures
Also There is outdoor area to exhibit large antiquities. That left only the base remains that have been excavated and restored since 2001, which have found relics and valuables were packed inside Sangkhalok and Chinese wares. It also has simulate kiln of chinaware to show the layout and production processes of Sangkhalok in Sukhothai etc.
Exhibitions in Lai Sue Thai memorial Building
Lai Sue Thai memorial Building exhibits the photo exhibition about Sukhothai from past to nowday, In present exhibition shows an overview of the province, such as the current location, terrain, boundaries rule, weather natural resources, tourist area and cultural diversity of the city.
In past exhibition provides information about the development of the ancient town of Sukhothai to early of Rattanakosin period. Reconstruction of ancient sites in Sukhothai until has been declared a world cultural heritage with Sri Suchanalaii historical park and Kamphaeng Phet historical park In 1991.
Exhibitions in Ramkhamhaeng National Museum include the following as;
1. An excellent piece of Antiquities in the museum
2. Summary historical record of Sukhothai creation
3. Beginning of cultural relationship in the region. , ceremonial kettledrum in South of Chaina and South East Asia
4. Hindu sculpture of the ancient city-state
5. Dvarawati Buddha Image of the ancient city-state
6. From wild community to the settlement house.
7. Stucco sculptures
8. Hindu sculptures in Sukhothai
9. Buddha Images in Sukhothai
10. Lai Sue Thai and Evolution of letters appeared in Thailand
11. Tunnel in Wat Si Chum
13. Relics from the archaeological excavation inside Ramkhamhaeng National Museum.
14. Buddhist art in Thailand
15. Votive tablets in Sukhothai
Beginning of cultural relationship in the region, ceremonial kettledrum in South of Chaina and South East Asia
Bronze ceremonial kettledrum found spread in archaeological sites of South China (Yunnan shire, Guangxi shire), Southeast Asia, both on Malayu Peninsula and islands in the South China Sea as proof of their relationship to Dong Son culture which origin and prosperity in the Red River basin in Vietnam and central of South China, about 2,100 years ago or in the late bronze age culture.
The influence of Dong Son material culture is spread along trade routes in the region, traditionally the next century. The spread of these which came to the community in Southeast Asia not only as a means of trade "The high cost of goods," but it is also something which represents the ideology traditionally been associated with the ritual use of drums enormously with these communities.
In Thailand found bronze ceremonial kettledrum every region, in the lower of northern spread enormously bronze drums found in Tak, Sukhothai and Uttaradit.
Ceremonial kettledrum are enormously from the casting bronze. This is an alloy of copper Tin and lead, It is a form of saying. In front of the box is decorated ornamental motifs such as stripes sunset boat water bird species such as flamingo birds, sea birds, animals, amphibians such as frogs and abshells. The patterns on these drum hugely correlated with rituals, the abundant rainfall ceremony and ritual about life and death and so on.
Prehistoric communities in Sukhothai evidence from archaeological finds from several archaeological sites in the province and neighboring provinces found that the settlement of the people in this area since prehistoric times, about 3000 years ago cause the stone tools were found at Khao Khen Khao Ga archaeological site, Nakornthai district, Phissanulok province, Khao Galorn, Khanuworalukburi district, Khampang Phet province, found ancient human bones and stone tools, assumes that the sickle stone used for agriculture from Ban Berng Yha archeological site, Khereemas district and communities was smelted metal Ban Wang Hard, Ban Dan Lan Hoi district, Sukhothai provience.
People who have lived in this area may be contiguous and located a house in the time to come until about the 12th century B.E. onwards, has been in contact with other regions of the central and north-eastern appearance in Dvarawati culture. They found evidence that the artifacts have similarities in Dvarawati antiques including beaded, sun silver medal from various sources in the area, as well as archaeological excavations at Wat Chom Chern, Sri Suchanalai district, Sukhothai province that ound human bones along with artifacts of Dvarawati culture.
Such evidence suggests that this area is a residential continuous from prehistoric to Dvaravati culture period spread all over regions of Thailand.
Buddha Images in Sukhothai
Buddhism spread to Thailand, about 7-9 century B.E. and later around 11-12 century B.E. Buddhism flourished in a central area of the country. Particularly in the area appear as evidence in written Chinese and Sanskrit as "Dvarawati".
Nowadays, the term "Dvaravati" is the name used to refer to a form of art. Which flourished during the 11-16 century BE. and appeared in the territory of the country today. During the century, the presence of a Buddhist pagoda decorated with stucco variety of shapes and sizes in several places as well as the creation of idols and images with various materials.
The inscription stone in Pali in various Dvarawati sources indicates that the religious culture of Dvaravati. Theravada Buddhism or Buddhist Pali is important. finding Bodhisattva shows that respected Mahayana Buddhism as well. The idols of Hindu was found. gods Vishnu, etc.
Dvarawati art developed from the form of Indian art, particularly the Gupta art and post-Gupta of central and western India. The influence of art from a forest northeast of India which is combined with a more local or native in the 16th century BE., or the late Dvarawati culture, art appears clearly show the influence of Khmer art.
Hindu sculptures in Sukhothai
Contact trade and cultural exchange between India and Southeast Asia began more than 5th centuries BE. Community in South East Asia has been selected and deployed the technology and culture of India, some to fit the traditional culture such as the arts of calligraphy, which was modeled on South India. With the use of Sanskrit and Pali, both in the court, which is the center of the kingdom, which is the center of the Church shrines are widespread. And the creation of idols in shrines had been carried out with the Hindu religion.
In the territory of Cambodia, the birthplace of ancient Khmer culture. Development and spread culture by many Hindus especially during the colonels of Cambodia. Hinduism has spread into territory that is present at the time. Sukhothai was created and respected tradition and inherited by various Hindu gods especially his three major gods are Brahma, Shiva and Vishnu.
Buddhist art in Sukhothai
Buddha Image in Sukhothai period as notable unique creation which reflects the beauty ideal of peace with the simplicity of the basic concept of Theravada Buddhism. These image can divide by characters of Buddhist art in 4 categories as ;
1. Buddha Images in Wat Traguan category
2. Buddha Images in Large category
3. Buddha Images in Buddhachinaracha category
4. Buddha Images in Kamphaeng Phet category
1.Buddha Image in Wat Traguan category
Buddha Images in this category was the first generation of Sukhothai in between the beginning of the 19th century BE., like form of the first version of Lanna style as the face looks plump, raise eyebrows, eyes glassy low, the eyes swell, smiling lips, knot chin. His robe clad oblique, peak of Sankati short over breasts centipede fang shaped pliers pattern. The halo was both in lotus and frame shape which had tee first excavation at Wat Traguan in Sukhothai Historical Park so call these images as Buddha Image in Wat Traguan category.
2.Buddha Images in Large category
Buddha Images in Large category was the category that found many pieces cause there were popular constructed in Sukhothai. Significant features include that if created as sitting image often sat cross-legged on a flat base, oval face, raise eyebrows, eyes glassy low, a prominent nose with aquiline tip. The halo was frame shape, wide shoulders and slim waist. His robe clad oblique, peak of Sankati short over breasts centipede fang shaped pliers pattern. Long, slender fingers are not equal Assumed that to be built during Sukhothai art was the most flourished as King Mahadhammaracha Lithai in Early 20th century BE.
3. Buddha Images in Buddhachinaracha category
Buddha Images in Buddhachinaracha category had significant features like the large category but there was some difference features as his face is quite round, halo was tall frame shape. His body was quite plum, four fingers was equal that to be built during King Mahadhammaracha Lithai in Early 20th century BE that was a bronze casting techniques had the most improved, because it can cast a large Buddha statue. The Buddha in this category as Buddhachinaracha Phra Sri Sarsada, Wat Phra Sri Rattana Mahathat, Phitsanulok province and Sri Sakyamuni , Wat Suthat Dhavararam, Bangkok, etc.
4. Buddha Images in Kamphaeng Phet category
Buddha Images in Kamphaeng Phet category was difference from other categories only found at Kamphaeng Phet but in very small quantities had significant features like the large category but the face was quite crescent, forehead was wide and narrow chin, small knot hair, the halo was high that built in 20th century BE.
Walking Buddha image
Buddha in a walking motion, a popular Buddhist art created during the Sukhothai period. A statue floating in Sukhothai style Buddha could mean one of the Buddha when he came down from heaven after the Buddha preached to mother. By comparison with stucco sculptures adorn the walls Buddha Temple pond Lang. The historic downtown east side. The narrative elements by Buddha in style poses. Raise the left hand up Behind a glass staircase Indra and Brahma is flanked by angels, and the operator behind.
Stucco sculptures is an art which reflect the craftsmanship. Wisdom's creative visionary speeches The unidentified remains, decorative stucco. Big Buddha statue or a stirrup or puppets made of brick or laterite, patterns that appear in the stucco. The style outfit accessories decoration All reflect the various ways in Sukhothai as well.
Generally, the material and technical basis for the creation of skilled jobs stucco Thailand, composed of limestone mixed with sand together. The rice wrapped on banana supply added to the binder. The limestone used to make molded through a calcareous delicate body. This image can be formed by fermentation - stir – pounder and filling glue made from plants or animals down.
Bas reliefs created by the stucco through process above forming the way you want it directly or using any casting type. If you want to make a piece of sculpture or a large floating large stucco, created a stirrup or shape with a brick or laterite to be shaped roughly as needed up to a first axial structure or a cement retainer, author mold labeling details and for high relief the Buddha is attached to a monastery on brick or laterite stirrup already be molded mask over it, and then finishing details to a spectacular stucco sculptures.
Buddha Footprint refers to Buddha’s footprint or the images, which believed to mark the sight of Lord Buddha stepped on earth prior to the creation of idols or creation the images to represents to him. In 5th-6th century BE., India had created what worship the Buddha to be a tiered model asThammachak and Buddha. footprint This is going to be a show or bear witness to the presence of the Lord Buddha in different places. Or the meaning of the Buddha's preaching mission to that place already.
Apocalypse of creating and worshiping Buddha footprint in Thailand has been with not less than 11-13 century BE. In Dvarawati as evidence footprint pair of marks carved into the concave surface laterite remains Sa Morakot Pool, Prachinburi province.
Until the 19th century Apocalypse creating Footprint reappear due to the influence of Buddhism Lanka. This is the time many of his disciples went Lanna and Sukhothai Buddhist Buddhism to Burma and Ceylon Lanka Continent where Buddhism iwas growing and continue to build belief and worship the Buddha, which is prevalent in those lands to Thailand.
The Apocalypse simulations Footprint had 108 comprising marks Commandments for the liturgy. In Sukhothai period beginning in Mahadhammaracha Lithai’s kingship in 19th century BE. by the 8th stone inscription (Sumon Kut mount. inscription) inscribed simulating the sacred Buddha footprint on Sumon Kut mount.in Lanka to 4 mountains in his kingdom compared with Sukhothai was the land which Lord Buddha had visited and protect forever. 2 in 4 mountains was denominated that Sumon Kut mount as the important mountain in Lanka. Both mountains shall be Khao Phra Bardh Noi and Khao Phra Bardh Yai in the ancient town of Sukhothai.
Tunnel in Wat Si Chum
Wat Si Chum, the historic old town in the northwest of Sukhothai had moat surrounding. The important building was Mondop which a large square building. Inside the shrine be enshrined “Phra Avajana” the large masonry Buddha image in subduing Mara
Mondop wall on the right of Buddha was the channel between the wall, dark and narrow, 48.12 meter long and 0.45 meter wide with only 5 channels for drill a vent and light enters through. If walk upstair in the tunnel that be able to reach the top of the Mondop. On the ceiling above the entrance to the tunnel. The sheet slate carved lotus bloom and slab carved Buddha. The tunnel found Shale inscriptions inscribted and translated text that connected to the t inscription two major speeches or inscriptions Wat Si Chum.
Once inside the tunnel ceiling, wall and two side plates slate grease is the theme of "Fable" tells the story of Buddha's previous life before born to be Lord Buddha.
Visualization fable evidence in inscriptions in Sukhothai period at Wat Sri Chum inscribted between 19th-20th century BE. shown that ; ‘the large tall pagoda with the stones are inscribed five hundred nations of Lord Buddha around by aesthetically to all people” the passage “five hundred nations” refers to Bodhisattvas came into the world in the past 500 incarnations.Image engraved on slate appear in this image along with a brief thai caption of Sukhothai letters assumed that there are no less than 88 shots but 51 shots interpret the slab remaining oblivious translate not deteriorate.
Ramkhamhaeng National Museum simulated image engraved on some allegory on the slateม exhibit along with a description of the allegory in the exhibit. "Tunnel vision at Wat Si Chum."
Birth of Lai Sue Thai
In 1283, King Ramkhumhang, the king of Sukhothai ordered to create Thai Calligraphy. This Calligraphy have taken from ancient text of India as a model. Although the form of Thai lettera that cames from the ancient Indian text (such as the Pallava script. In southern India) which have been developed over Khmer and Mon scripts that is used in the vernacular but Thai letters by King Ramkhumhang were clearly difference from the other as each letter separately, independently of each characteristic. Writing vowel Put it in line with consonants by on the front or back of consonant and sxpand the vowel size to grow as same as consonance. Including a set of symbols called "tonal" labeled on the letters to pronounce words differently.The mentioned above is the nature of the original and features a unique system of writing a letter by King Ramkhumhang. In the first major speeches inscriptions or inscriptions of King Ramkhamhaeng had the words “Lai Sue Thai” to call this Calligraphy that consist of 61 letters divided to 39 consonances 20 vowels and 2 tonals. Lai Sue Thai by King Ramkhumhang was all Thai letters prototype as Thai Lanna, northeast Thai, Thai Ayutthaya and Modern Thai.
Inscriptions of King Ramkhamhaeng
inscriptions of King Ramkhamhaeng or the first major speeches inscriptions discovered by King Mongkut, the king Rama IV Year in 1833. As he entered the pilgrim pilgrimage tours to the northern districts of the country. he found a stone inscription of King Ramkhamhaeng of Sukhothai at Castle Hill in the ancient town of Sukhothai, so brought it to Bangkok with inscriptions of Wat Phar Moung and Manunkasilabaht stone altar in 1833. Currently, the stone inscription of King Ramkhamhaeng exhibits at the National Museum Bangkok.
Sukhothai Inscription is primarily attributed to publish stories in the reign of King Ramkhamhaeng. The important thing to behold and remember as ;
- The creation Thai fonts in the year 1282
- The creat.ion of Manunkasilabaht stone altar in 1293
- The Meditation, Buddha worship of the divine king and citizens.
- Create and enshrine several core inscriptions which written with Thailand in Thai fonts represents a breakthrough in the compilation of Thailand.
- The glory and honor of King Ramkhamhaeng mighty military force to some extent the Kingdom witness.
Sukhothai was the name to call stronger texture pottery which produced in Sukhothai between 19th-20th century BE. With both unglazed and matte colors such as brown, white, green. The decorative patterns on Sangkhalok Found both scratching the decorative molding paste and black writing a pattern by glazed a clear glazed over again. The patterns found in fish, rowel, conch and stalk rolls flower and so on.
Sangkhalok products have many different forms depending on the purpose of use, for example;
1. Daily pottery as plates, bowls, bottles, jars, bearings, pots, lanterns etc.
2. Used in religious ceremonies as a pitcher with a special pattern, religious idols jars for containing the bones, pate broken dolls and so on.
3. For a decorative architecture as gables, roof tiles., flagstones, demon guarding the monastery and dragon for decorative railing.
4. Toys as dolls figture Man carries a stuffed chicken, mother holding, small animals such as elephants, dogs, chickens, turtles , wrestling dolls and so on.
5. The other Including water pipe and so on
During the 20th century chinaware has been developed to provide better quality as well as decorative coatings that can send out both inside and outside the country. Sankhalok found in Sukhothai as many shipwrecks around the coast and the Gulf of Thailand both in everyday life and a good product and also found in the cemetery of ancient communities in the Philippines represents the spread of chinaware abroad as well.
The Important source of Sankhalok in Sukhothai
1. The stoves in the old town of Sukhothai that located near the waterfront of Mae Jone river. There were 2 style of stoves as vertical and horizontal cooling. Sangkhalok produced in the old town with poor soil. It must be damp soil to the surface and then painted black and then glazed green
2. The stoves in the old town of Sri Sachanalai that located near the waterfront of Yom river at Ban Pha Yang area and Ban Kho Noi that the stoves at Ban Pha Yang Often produced Sankhalok which dark, large and decorated with painted black as decoration of architecture. The products from Ban Kho Noi ovens was very good quality meet coated olive green , brown and white glazed. painted brown.
Relics Room display Sukhothai antiques and valuables from the excavation, which is located inside the restored historic, Ramkhamhaeng National Museum.
The important artifacts including relics opaque, size of a grain of sand contained gold casket inside cover of remains sand pagoda number 1 thai believed to be the relics of the saint were any one of disciples.
The other artifacts found with relicts as votive tablets, crystal, beads and gold ring that these items included a bow to commemorate the Buddha or Buddhist monks. consecrated Buddha And as Buddhism
Traditionally built stupa since after Buddha. The king of Administrative region in the Indian subcontinent gained share for Royal Rick element to 8 parts and build 8 stupsa in their shrine for their own packaging to public worship
Later in the 3rd Century BE. Ashoka. Emperor who ruled the High Country was a standout upholder of all religions gather to share relics stupa built in the countries that sent legates to Buddhis, believe thathad the creation of up to 84,000 traditional stupa. Building stupa containing the relics have been missionaries with the Buddhist in Thailand. The relics are venerated as sacred relics more important than others. This belief has appeared in the Sukhothai Kingdom.